By the early fifteen hundreds Muslim Sultanates were already well-established in South India. Starting in 1336, two brothers, Harihara and Bukka Raya built a magnificent city in South India that would be the stronghold of Hinduism for two hundred years. In 1509, this nation, one of the few remaining Hindu states in India, Vijayanagara, Krishnadevaraya rose to power. Krishnadevaraya started out his military campaigns by invading the sultanate of Bidar and the king of Bidar's ally, Yusuf Adil Khan.By the year 1510, most of norther Karnataka was under his rule. Krishnadevaraya had conquered Raichur, Gulburga and Bidar. Having conquered such vast lands, he built a beautiful city in Seringapatnam. By 1516 Vijayanagar's territory stretched all the way to the Krishna and Godavari rivers. Krishnadevaraya's conquests forced him to continually war with Bijapur and Golconda, both of which he successfully defeated. He utilized his trading skills to obtain Portuguese guns and Arabian horses, in order to strengthen his nation. A traveler to Vijayanagara, Domingo Paes, describes Krishnadevaraya's Vijayanagara as "the best provided city in the world with a population of not less than a half a million." In fact he estimated the size of the city to be around that of Rome. He also described Krishnadevaraya as "the most feared and perfect king that could possibly be, cheerful of disposition and very merry, he is one that seeks to honor foreigners, receives them kindly. He is a great ruler and man of much justice.” He was also a talanted poet himself, and also sponsored many great poets contributing to the golden age of Telegu Literature. He wrote the work Amuktamalyada, which is a deeply philosophical work about the oneness of man and God using metaphors. The literature describes the loneliness and suffering of Bhumidevi when she is separated from her lover Sri Vishnu. In addition to the Amuktamalyada, Krishnadevaraya also wrote many works in Kannada, Telegu and Sanskrit. Under the rule of Krishnadevaraya, Telegu literature experienced a golden age, as eight prominent Telegu poets composed great works during his reign. The clever Tenali Raman popular in folk tradition worked under the reign of Krishnadevaraya. As a king, Krishnadevaraya is known to have built many temples in his kingdom, restrengthening Hinduism after its lands had fallen to muslim sultans. Krishnadevaraya did alot to assist Hinduism in a rather dark era for Hinduism.